TED | 压力越大 你的记忆力越好?

演讲简介

 

您花了数周时间学习一项重要的考试。在重要的一天,您会在老师分发时紧张地等待。当您被要求定义“自闭症”时,您正在自己的过程中。您知道您曾经看过这个词,但是头脑一片空白。刚才发生了什么?伊丽莎白·考克斯详细介绍了压力与记忆之间的复杂关系。

 

 

 

演讲精彩片段(节选)欣赏

  

There are many types and degrees of stress and different kinds of memory, but we’re going to focus on how short-term stress impacts your memory for facts.

压力有多种类型和程度,记忆也分很多种,但我们要研究的是短期压力如何影响你对事实的记忆。

 

To start, it helps to understand how this kind of memory works.

首先,理解记忆是如何工作的,这一点很有感帮助。

 

Facts you read, hear, or study become memories through a process with three main steps.

你所读到的听到的或学习的事实通过三个主要的过程成为记忆。

 

First comes acquisition: the moment you encounter a new piece of information。

首先是获取:当你遇到一个新的信息。

 

Each sensory experience activates a unique set of brain areas.

每一种感官体验都会激活一组独特的大脑区域。

 

In order to become lasting memories, these sensory experiences have to be consolidated by the hippocampus,

为了形成长期记忆,这些感官体验必须由海马体巩固,

 

influenced by the amygdala, which emphasizes experiences associated with strong emotions.

受杏仁核影响,强调与强烈情感相关的经历。

 

The hippocampus then encodes memories, probably by strengthening the synaptic connections stimulated during the original sensory experience.

海马体对记忆进行编码,这可能是通过加强在最初的感觉体验中刺激的突触连接来实现的。

 

Once a memory has been encoded, it can be remembered, or retrieved, later。

一旦记忆被编码,它可以被记住也可以在以后用于检索。

 

Memories are stored all over the brain, and it's likely the prefrontal cortex that signals for their retrieval.

记忆储存在大脑里,由前额叶皮质发出用于检索的信号。

 

So how does stress affect each of these stages?

那么压力如何影响这些阶段的?

 

In the first two stages, moderate stress can actually help experiences enter your memory。

在前两个阶段适度的压力实际上可以帮助经历进入你的记忆。

 

Your brain responds to stressful stimuli by releasing hormones known as corticosteroids,

你的大脑通过释放一种叫做皮质类固醇的激素来应对压力的刺激,

 

which activate a process of threat-detection and threat-response in the amygdala.

这会激活杏仁核中威胁检测和威胁响应的过程。

 

The amygdala prompts your hippocampus to consolidate the stress-inducing experience into a memory.

杏仁核会促使你的海马体将压力引导的体验巩固为记忆。

 

Meanwhile, the flood of corticosteroids from stress stimulates your hippocampus, also prompting memory consolidation.

同时,压力导致皮质类固醇大量分泌刺激你的海马体,也促进了记忆的巩固。

 

But even though some stress can be helpful, extreme and chronic stress can have the opposite effect.

但即使有些压力可能会有所帮助,极端和长期压力却会产生相反的效果。

 

Researchers have tested this by injecting rats directly with stress hormones。

研究人员通过直接向老鼠注射应激激素来测试这一点。

 

As they gradually increased the dose of corticosteroids, the rats performance on memory tests increased at first, but dropped off at higher doses。

当他们逐渐增加皮质类固醇的剂量时,老鼠的对记忆力测试表现起初增加,但在较高剂量时下降。

 

In humans, we see a similar positive effect with moderate stress.

在人身上我们发现适度压力也有类似的积极作用。

 

But that only appears when the stress is related to the memory task, so while time pressure might help you memorize a list having a friend scare you will not.

但只有当压力与记忆任务相关时才会出现,所以,虽然时间压力可能帮助你记住一个列表,但如果有一个朋友吓到你就无法记住了。

 

 

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